The epileptogenic activities of several beta-lactam antibiotics were compared following their intracerebroventricular administration in rats. Different convulsant potencies were observed among the various beta-lactam antibiotics tested, but the epileptogenic patterns were similar. The patterns consisted of an initial phase characterized by wet-dog shakes followed by head tremor, nodding, and clonic convulsions. After the largest doses of beta-lactam antibiotics injected, clonus of all four limbs and/or the trunk, rearing, jumping, falling down, escape response, transient tonic-clonic seizures, and sometimes generalized seizures were observed, followed by a postictal period with a fatal outcome. At a dose of 0.033 pmol per rat, cefazolin was the most powerful epileptogenic compound among the drugs tested. It was approximately three times more potent than benzylpenicillin in generating a response and much more potent than other cephalosporins, such as ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, and cefamandole. No epileptogenic signs were observed with equimolar doses of cefotaxine, cefonicid, cefixime, and ceftizoxime in this model. The more comvulsant compounds (i.e., cefazolin and ceftezole) are both characterized by the presence of a tetrazole nucleus at position 7 and show a marked chemical similarity to pentylenetetrazole. Imipenem and meropenem, the two carbapenems tested, also showed epileptogenic properties, but imipenem was more potent than meropenem, with a convulsant potency similar to those of ceftezole and benzylpenicillin. In addition, the monobactam aztreonam possessed convulsant properties more potent than those of cefoperazone and cefamandole. This suggests that the beta-lactam ring is a possible determinant of production of epileptogenic activity, with likely contributory factors in the substitutions at the 7-aminocephalosporanic or 6-aminopenicillanic acid that may increase or reduce the epileptogenic properties of the beta-lactam antibiotics. While the structure-activity relationship was also investigated, there seem to be no convincing correlations among the rank order of lipophilicities and the convulsant potencies of the compounds studied. The lack of marked convulsant properties of cefixime, cefonicid, cefouroxime, and cephradine suggests that these antibiotics may interact with a binding site which is different from that by which the beta-lactam antibiotics exert their convulsant effects or may demonstrate a reduced affinity for the relevant site(s).
|Titolo:||RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRUCTURE AND CONVULSANT PROPERTIES OF SOME BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS FOLLOWING INTRACEREBROVENTRICULAR MICROINJECTION IN RATS|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1995|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|