Depression symptoms have often reported in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), although the underlying psychopathological symptomatology has been poorly understood. Our aim was to compare constellations of psychological and behavioral disturbance in PNES with respect to patients with mild-major depressive disorder (MDD), hypothesizing that the construct of depression might be different in the two groups. Ten patients with PNES and ten sex-/age-matched patients with mild-MDD newly-diagnosed, were enrolled in this study. A wide neuropsychiatric battery was employed including the following: symptoms checklist 90-R (SCL-90-R), Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS-20), Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAMA), Beck depression inventory (BDI II), dissociative experiences scale (DES), traumatic experience checklist (TEC), somatoform dissociation questionnaire (SDQ-20), and temperament and character inventory-revised (TCI-R). No significant difference was detected in the large part of psychopathological examination including personality profile between the two groups. However, PNES showed high scores in alexithymia (p=0.02); anxiety (p=0.03), and somatoform symptomatology (p's<0.03) with respect to patients with mild-MDD. Moreover, somatoform symptoms strongly correlated with depression scores in both groups, whereas alexithymia was influenced by high anxiety level only in the group with PNES. No significant relationship was found between traumatic experience (as measured by TEC) and construct of depression. Our proof-of-concept study suggests that patients with PNES are characterized by their inability to verbalize emotions when dealing with anxiety symptoms, therefore expressing them in a somatic dimension. Further researches, including the investigation of the relationship between anxiety status and emotional expression, are warranted to better understand the pathogenesis of PNES.
|Titolo:||Psychopathological constellation in patients with PNES: A new hypothesis|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|