Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare neoplasm which is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). First of all, we reviewed the literature on NPC treatment. Radio/chemotherapy is currently the gold standard but unfortunately is affected by rates of failure ranging from 7% up to 58%. Because NPC development is promoted by the EBV latent life cycle, EBV-targeted treatments were investigated. Firstly, forcing cytolytic virus activation through administration of gemcitabine and/or valproic acid before administration of a nucleoside analogue showed anti-tumoral activity in vitro as well as in murine model and it was also well tolerated in humans. Secondly, the association of autologous EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes with chemotherapy correlated with an improved median survival and was safe but not effective versus metastatic lesions. Thirdly, suppression of late membrane protein-1 in the clinic proved controversial because it gave resistance to chemotherapy and, on the other hand, increased radiosensitivity. Finally, we suggest future perspectives for clinical research which should include both prospective and observational cohort studies to assess the role of different risk factors in the development of NPC and the effectiveness of new investigational treatments.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare neoplasm which is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). First of all, we reviewed the literature on NPC treatment. Radio/chemotherapy is currently the gold standard but unfortunately is affected by rates of failure ranging from 7% up to 58%. Because NPC development is promoted by the EBV latent life cycle, EBV-targeted treatments were investigated. Firstly, forcing cytolytic virus activation through administration of gemcitabine and/or valproic acid before administration of a nucleoside analogue showed anti-tumoral activity in vitro as well as in murine model and it was also well tolerated in humans. Secondly, the association of autologous EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes with chemotherapy correlated with an improved median survival and was safe but not effective versus metastatic lesions. Thirdly, suppression of late membrane protein-1 in the clinic proved controversial because it gave resistance to chemotherapy and, on the other hand, increased radiosensitivity. Finally, we suggest future perspectives for clinical research which should include both prospective and observational cohort studies to assess the role of different risk factors in the development of NPC and the effectiveness of new investigational treatments.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: review of the literature with a focus on therapeutical implications.

LIBERTO M;Torti C;Donato G
2015-01-01

Abstract

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare neoplasm which is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). First of all, we reviewed the literature on NPC treatment. Radio/chemotherapy is currently the gold standard but unfortunately is affected by rates of failure ranging from 7% up to 58%. Because NPC development is promoted by the EBV latent life cycle, EBV-targeted treatments were investigated. Firstly, forcing cytolytic virus activation through administration of gemcitabine and/or valproic acid before administration of a nucleoside analogue showed anti-tumoral activity in vitro as well as in murine model and it was also well tolerated in humans. Secondly, the association of autologous EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes with chemotherapy correlated with an improved median survival and was safe but not effective versus metastatic lesions. Thirdly, suppression of late membrane protein-1 in the clinic proved controversial because it gave resistance to chemotherapy and, on the other hand, increased radiosensitivity. Finally, we suggest future perspectives for clinical research which should include both prospective and observational cohort studies to assess the role of different risk factors in the development of NPC and the effectiveness of new investigational treatments.
2015
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare neoplasm which is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). First of all, we reviewed the literature on NPC treatment. Radio/chemotherapy is currently the gold standard but unfortunately is affected by rates of failure ranging from 7% up to 58%. Because NPC development is promoted by the EBV latent life cycle, EBV-targeted treatments were investigated. Firstly, forcing cytolytic virus activation through administration of gemcitabine and/or valproic acid before administration of a nucleoside analogue showed anti-tumoral activity in vitro as well as in murine model and it was also well tolerated in humans. Secondly, the association of autologous EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes with chemotherapy correlated with an improved median survival and was safe but not effective versus metastatic lesions. Thirdly, suppression of late membrane protein-1 in the clinic proved controversial because it gave resistance to chemotherapy and, on the other hand, increased radiosensitivity. Finally, we suggest future perspectives for clinical research which should include both prospective and observational cohort studies to assess the role of different risk factors in the development of NPC and the effectiveness of new investigational treatments.
Animals; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols; Carcinoma; Chemoradiotherapy; Chemotherapy, Adjuvant; Deoxycytidine; Evidence-Based Medicine; Humans; Immunotherapy, Adoptive; Lymphocyte Activation; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms; Treatment Outcome; Valproic Acid
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/16417
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