Introduction: The aim of this study was to describe the normal crosssectional area (CSA) and ultrasonographic anatomy of the main tendons of the shoulder and elbow in German Shepherd dogs, in order to establish reference values that could provide a tool to identify abnormalities. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 sound German Shepherd dogs were involved in this study. The CSA of the proximal tendons of biceps brachii, flexor carpi ulnaris, and extensor digitorum communis and the distal tendons of biceps brachii, infraspinatus, and triceps brachii muscle were recorded. To ensure consistency, one investigator performed all measurements. The CSA was expressed in mm2 and data was analyzed using the Shapiro–Wilk test (P < .05) to attest normality of variables. Differences between genders and body weight (BW; Group 1 <32 kg; Group 2 >32 kg) were analyzed using the t-test (P < .05). Results: Mean values of tendon CSA were higher in males than in females and in Group 2 than in Group 1, with statistically significant differences (P < .05) for flexor carpi ulnaris (genders) and extensor digitorum communis, and triceps brachii tendons (genders and BW). Discussion: Several reports in human and veterinary medicine have demonstrated that ultrasonography is a specific technique to diagnose abnormalities of tendons in the shoulder and elbow regions. CSA provides a transverse image of the tendon that allows thickness and variation in shape to be assessed. Our analysis showed a sexual dimorphism in German Shepherd dogs. The sex and breed difference of growth patterns for German Shepherd dogs and Labrador Retrievers has been discussed by Helm ink et al. (2000). The estimated mature weight was 4.7 ± 0.2 kg higher for males than for females. Tranguerd et al. (2007) described the growth patterns of 4 large dog breeds raised in domestic environments and concomitant changes in 2 clinical variables: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the circumference of the distal radius and ulna (CDRU). The estimated average CDRU increased from 90 days of age toward a peak at 180 days. At comparable ages, males had a greater CDRU than females. In conclusion, it is our opinion that tendon CSA could be a useful variable to identify normal growth in adult German shepherd dogs.
|Titolo:||Ultrasonographic examination and cross sectional area (CSA) of the main tendons of the shoulder and elbow in German shepherd dogs.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2012|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||4.1 Contributo in Atti di convegno|