Background: The possible impact of changes in diet composition on the intestinal microbiome is mostly studied after some days of adaptation to the diet of interest. The question arises if a few days are enough to reflect the microbial response to the diet by changing the community composition and function. The present study investigated the fecal microbiome of pigs during a time span of 4 weeks after a dietary change to obtain insights regarding the time required for adaptation. Four different diets were used differing in either protein source (field peas meal vs. soybean meal) or the concentration of calcium and phosphorus (CaP). Results: Twelve pigs were sampled at seven time points within 4 weeks after the dietary change. Fecal samples were used to sequence the 16S rRNA gene amplicons to analyse microbial proteins via LC-MS/MS and to determine the SCFA production. The analysis of OTU abundances and quantification values of proteins showed a significant separation of three periods of time (p = 0.001). Samples from the first day are used to define the 'zero period'; samples of weeks 1 and 2 are combined as 'metabolic period' and an 'equilibrium period was defined based on samples from weeks 3 and 4. Only in this last period, a separation according to the supplementation of CaP was significantly detectable (p = 0.001). No changes were found based on the corn-soybean meal or corn-field peas administration. The analysis of possible factors causing this significant separation showed only an overall change of bacterial members and functional properties. The metaproteomic approach yielded a total of about 9700 proteins, which were used to deduce possible metabolic functions of the bacterial community. Conclusions: A gradual taxonomic and functional rearrangement of the bacterial community has been depicted after a change of diet composition. The adaptation lasts several weeks despite the usually assumed time span of several days. The obtained knowledge is of a great importance for the design of future nutritional studies. Moreover, considering the high similarities between the porcine and human gastrointestinal tract anatomy and physiology, the findings of the current study might imply in the design of human-related nutritional studies.

Dietary changes in nutritional studies shape the structural and functional composition of the pigs' fecal microbiome-from days to weeks

Tilocca B
Conceptualization
;
2017-01-01

Abstract

Background: The possible impact of changes in diet composition on the intestinal microbiome is mostly studied after some days of adaptation to the diet of interest. The question arises if a few days are enough to reflect the microbial response to the diet by changing the community composition and function. The present study investigated the fecal microbiome of pigs during a time span of 4 weeks after a dietary change to obtain insights regarding the time required for adaptation. Four different diets were used differing in either protein source (field peas meal vs. soybean meal) or the concentration of calcium and phosphorus (CaP). Results: Twelve pigs were sampled at seven time points within 4 weeks after the dietary change. Fecal samples were used to sequence the 16S rRNA gene amplicons to analyse microbial proteins via LC-MS/MS and to determine the SCFA production. The analysis of OTU abundances and quantification values of proteins showed a significant separation of three periods of time (p = 0.001). Samples from the first day are used to define the 'zero period'; samples of weeks 1 and 2 are combined as 'metabolic period' and an 'equilibrium period was defined based on samples from weeks 3 and 4. Only in this last period, a separation according to the supplementation of CaP was significantly detectable (p = 0.001). No changes were found based on the corn-soybean meal or corn-field peas administration. The analysis of possible factors causing this significant separation showed only an overall change of bacterial members and functional properties. The metaproteomic approach yielded a total of about 9700 proteins, which were used to deduce possible metabolic functions of the bacterial community. Conclusions: A gradual taxonomic and functional rearrangement of the bacterial community has been depicted after a change of diet composition. The adaptation lasts several weeks despite the usually assumed time span of several days. The obtained knowledge is of a great importance for the design of future nutritional studies. Moreover, considering the high similarities between the porcine and human gastrointestinal tract anatomy and physiology, the findings of the current study might imply in the design of human-related nutritional studies.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/58508
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