Pediatric varicocele has an overall prevalence of 15%, being more frequent as puberty begins. It can damage testicular function, interfering with Sertoli cell proliferation and hormone secretion, testicular growth and spermatogenesis. Proper management has a pivotal role for future fertility preservation. The aim of this review was to discuss the diagnosis, management and treatment of childhood and adolescent varicocele from an endocrinologic perspective, illustrating the current evidence of the European Society of Pediatric Urology (ESPU), the European Association of Urology (EAU), the American Urological Association (AUA) and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) scientific societies. According to the ASRM/ESPU/AUA practice committee, the treatment of adolescent varicocele is indicated in the case of decreased testicular volume or sperm abnormalities, while it is contraindicated in subclinical varicocele. The recent EAS/ESPU meta-analysis reports that moderate evidence exists on the benefits of varicocele treatment in children and adolescents in terms of testicular volume and sperm concentration increase. No specific phenotype in terms of testicular volume cut-off or peak retrograde flow (PRF) is indicated. Based on current evidence, we suggest that conservative management may be suggested in patients with PRF < 30 cm/s, testicular asymmetry < 10% and no evidence of sperm and hormonal abnormalities. In patients with 10-20% testicular volume asymmetry or 30 < PRF ≤ 38 cm/s or sperm abnormalities, careful follow-up may ensue. In the case of absent catch-up growth or sperm recovery, varicocele repair should be suggested. Finally, treatment can be proposed at the initial consultation in painful varicocele, testicular volume asymmetry ≥ 20%, PRF > 38 cm/s, infertility and failure of testicular development.

Management and Treatment of Varicocele in Children and Adolescents: An Endocrinologic Perspective

Aversa, Antonio
Writing – Review & Editing
;
2019-01-01

Abstract

Pediatric varicocele has an overall prevalence of 15%, being more frequent as puberty begins. It can damage testicular function, interfering with Sertoli cell proliferation and hormone secretion, testicular growth and spermatogenesis. Proper management has a pivotal role for future fertility preservation. The aim of this review was to discuss the diagnosis, management and treatment of childhood and adolescent varicocele from an endocrinologic perspective, illustrating the current evidence of the European Society of Pediatric Urology (ESPU), the European Association of Urology (EAU), the American Urological Association (AUA) and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) scientific societies. According to the ASRM/ESPU/AUA practice committee, the treatment of adolescent varicocele is indicated in the case of decreased testicular volume or sperm abnormalities, while it is contraindicated in subclinical varicocele. The recent EAS/ESPU meta-analysis reports that moderate evidence exists on the benefits of varicocele treatment in children and adolescents in terms of testicular volume and sperm concentration increase. No specific phenotype in terms of testicular volume cut-off or peak retrograde flow (PRF) is indicated. Based on current evidence, we suggest that conservative management may be suggested in patients with PRF < 30 cm/s, testicular asymmetry < 10% and no evidence of sperm and hormonal abnormalities. In patients with 10-20% testicular volume asymmetry or 30 < PRF ≤ 38 cm/s or sperm abnormalities, careful follow-up may ensue. In the case of absent catch-up growth or sperm recovery, varicocele repair should be suggested. Finally, treatment can be proposed at the initial consultation in painful varicocele, testicular volume asymmetry ≥ 20%, PRF > 38 cm/s, infertility and failure of testicular development.
2019
peak retrograde flow; pediatric varicocele; testicular volume asymmetry; varicocele repair
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/59963
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 13
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 11
social impact