During the past decades, several radio-labelled monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have been tested in preclinical and clinical settings for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas (NHL). The only compounds that have been registered for RIT of relapsed/refractory NHL are 131I-tositumomab (Bexxar®) and 90Y-ibritumomab-tiuxetan (Zevalin®), both directed against CD20, indicating the favorable immunological characteristics of such antigen expressed by B-cell surface. The presence of a high-energy β- emitting radioactive source offers the unique chance to enhance the therapeutic effect of the antibody itself. Indeed, the proposed "cross-fire effect" seems to overcome some of the mechanisms underlying resistance to mAb, allowing for killing neighboring cancer cells not expressing the CD20 antigen. The present chapter will summarize the clinical results of both Zevalin® and Bexxar® in the treatment of relapsed/refractory B-cell NHL. Efficacy in first line and consolidation therapy will be also discussed, as well as the inclusion of RIT in myeloablative chemo-regimens. © 2013 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.
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