Rationale: The pathogenesis of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV)-associated aortopathy is poorly understood, and no prognostic biomarker is currently available. Objective: We aimed to identify putative circulating biomarkers pathogenetically and prognostically linked to bicuspid aortopathy. Methods and Results: By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we evaluated gene expression variations (versus normal aorta) of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), connective tissue growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-14, endoglin (ENG), and superoxide dismutase 3 in ascending aorta samples from 50 tricuspid and 70 patients with BAV undergoing surgery for aortic stenosis (aorta diameter ≤45 mm: BAVnon-dil or >45 mm: BAVdil). Expression changes of the TGF-β1 active dimer and ENG were analyzed also by Western blot in ascending aorta samples from other 10 tricuspid aortic valve, 10 BAVnon-dil, and 10 BAVdil patients. The serum concentration of study targets was assessed through ELISA and the ratio of serum TGF-β1/ENG (T/E) was evaluated. All BAVnon-dil patients underwent follow-up echocardiography to assess aortic growth rate. In BAVnon-dil patients, TGF-β1 and MMP-2 gene expression increased significantly, whereas MMP-14 and ENG expression decreased versus controls. Expression changes were confirmed at protein level for TGF-β1 and ENG. TGF-β1 serum concentration significantly decreased in tricuspid aortic valve and BAVnon-dil patients versus healthy subjects. ENG serum concentration decreased in all patients, more markedly in BAVdil. A significant increase of the T/E ratio versus healthy subjects was unique of patients with BAV. In BAVnon-dil patients, a T/E ≥9 was independently associated in multivariable analysis with higher MMP-2 and lower superoxide dismutase 3 gene expression, independent of age and aortic diameter. A significant correlation was observed between baseline T/E ratio and aortic diameter growth rate in BAVnon-dil patients (r=0.66, P<0.001). Conclusions: The novel evidence of a possible value of the T/E ratio as a biomarker of BAV aortopathy was presented: further validation studies are warranted.

A Possible Early Biomarker for Bicuspid Aortopathy: Circulating Transforming Growth Factor β-1 to Soluble Endoglin Ratio

Santarpino G.;
2017-01-01

Abstract

Rationale: The pathogenesis of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV)-associated aortopathy is poorly understood, and no prognostic biomarker is currently available. Objective: We aimed to identify putative circulating biomarkers pathogenetically and prognostically linked to bicuspid aortopathy. Methods and Results: By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we evaluated gene expression variations (versus normal aorta) of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), connective tissue growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-14, endoglin (ENG), and superoxide dismutase 3 in ascending aorta samples from 50 tricuspid and 70 patients with BAV undergoing surgery for aortic stenosis (aorta diameter ≤45 mm: BAVnon-dil or >45 mm: BAVdil). Expression changes of the TGF-β1 active dimer and ENG were analyzed also by Western blot in ascending aorta samples from other 10 tricuspid aortic valve, 10 BAVnon-dil, and 10 BAVdil patients. The serum concentration of study targets was assessed through ELISA and the ratio of serum TGF-β1/ENG (T/E) was evaluated. All BAVnon-dil patients underwent follow-up echocardiography to assess aortic growth rate. In BAVnon-dil patients, TGF-β1 and MMP-2 gene expression increased significantly, whereas MMP-14 and ENG expression decreased versus controls. Expression changes were confirmed at protein level for TGF-β1 and ENG. TGF-β1 serum concentration significantly decreased in tricuspid aortic valve and BAVnon-dil patients versus healthy subjects. ENG serum concentration decreased in all patients, more markedly in BAVdil. A significant increase of the T/E ratio versus healthy subjects was unique of patients with BAV. In BAVnon-dil patients, a T/E ≥9 was independently associated in multivariable analysis with higher MMP-2 and lower superoxide dismutase 3 gene expression, independent of age and aortic diameter. A significant correlation was observed between baseline T/E ratio and aortic diameter growth rate in BAVnon-dil patients (r=0.66, P<0.001). Conclusions: The novel evidence of a possible value of the T/E ratio as a biomarker of BAV aortopathy was presented: further validation studies are warranted.
2017
aortic disease; aortic valve stenosis; bicuspid; biomarkers; endoglin; transforming growth factor-β1; Adult; Aged; Aortic Valve; Aortic Valve Stenosis; Biomarkers; Echocardiography; Endoglin; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Heart Valve Diseases; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Transforming Growth Factor beta1
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/60411
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