Background: Thyroid gland dysfunction represents an epidemiologically relevant disease in the female gender, where treatment with oral contraceptives (OCs) is frequently prescribed. Although OCs are able to impact the thyroid gland function, scanty data have been released on this matter so far. Aim: The aim of this article was to review how hormonal OCs, including estrogen- or progesterone-only containing medications, interact with the hepatic production of thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) and, consequently, their effects on serum levels of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). We also reviewed the effect of Levo-T4 (LT4) administration in women taking OCs and how they influence the thyroid function in both euthyroid women and in those receiving LT4. Review: The estrogenic component of the pills is capable of increasing various liver proteins, such as TBG, sex hormone-binding protein (SHBG) and coagulation factors. On the other hand, the role of progestogens is to modulate estrogen-dependent effects mainly through their anti-androgenic action. In fact, a reduction in the effects of androgens is useful to keep the thromboembolic and cardiovascular risks low, whereas OCs increase it especially in women with subclinical hypothyroidism or in those treated with LT4. Accordingly, subclinical hypothyroidism is known to be associated with a higher mean platelet volume than normal and this increases cardiovascular risk due to platelet hyperactivity caused by incomplete thrombocytopoietic maturation.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.