Different ofloxacin-loaded unilamellar vesicles were prepared by the extrusion technique, and their antimicrobial activities were determined in comparison to those of the free drug by means of MIC determinations with both American Type Culture Collection standards and wild-type bacterial strains (six strains of Enterococcus faecalls, seven strains of Escherichia coli, six strains of Staphylococcus aureus, and six strains of Pseudotnonas aeruginosa). The accumulation of ofloxacin and liposome-ofloxacin was measured by determining the amount of the drug inside the bacteria as a function of time. Encapsulated fluoroquinolone yielded MICs which were at least twofold lower than those obtained with the free drug. In particular, liposomes made up of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-dihexadecylphosphate (4:3:4 molar ratio) provided the best improvement in antimicrobial activity against the various bacterial strains investigated. The liposome formulation produced higher intracellular fluoroquinolone concentrations than those achieved simultaneously with the free drug in both E. coli and P. aeruginosa.
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