Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of disorders affecting the heart or blood vessels. Despite progress in clinical research and therapy, CVDs still represent the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The hallmarks of cardiac diseases include heart dysfunction and cardiomyocyte death, inflammation, fibrosis, scar tissue, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and abnormal ventricular remodeling. The loss of cardiomyocytes is an irreversible process that leads to fibrosis and scar formation, which, in turn, induce heart failure with progressive and dramatic consequences. Both genetic and environmental factors pathologically contribute to the development of CVDs, but the precise causes that trigger cardiac diseases and their progression are still largely unknown. The lack of reliable human model systems for such diseases has hampered the unraveling of the underlying molecular mechanisms and cellular processes involved in heart diseases at their initial stage and during their progression. Over the past decade, significant scientific advances in the field of stem cell biology have literally revolutionized the study of human disease in vitro. Remarkably, the possibility to generate disease-relevant cell types from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has developed into an unprecedented and powerful opportunity to achieve the long-standing ambition to investigate human diseases at a cellular level, uncovering their molecular mechanisms, and finally to translate bench discoveries into potential new therapeutic strategies. This review provides an update on previous and current research in the field of iPSC-driven cardiovascular disease modeling, with the aim of underlining the potential of stem-cell biology-based approaches in the elucidation of the pathophysiology of these life-threatening diseases.

Modeling cardiac disease mechanisms using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes: Progress, promises and challenges

Parrotta E. I.;Lucchino V.;Scaramuzzino L.;Scalise S.;Cuda G.
2020-01-01

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of disorders affecting the heart or blood vessels. Despite progress in clinical research and therapy, CVDs still represent the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The hallmarks of cardiac diseases include heart dysfunction and cardiomyocyte death, inflammation, fibrosis, scar tissue, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and abnormal ventricular remodeling. The loss of cardiomyocytes is an irreversible process that leads to fibrosis and scar formation, which, in turn, induce heart failure with progressive and dramatic consequences. Both genetic and environmental factors pathologically contribute to the development of CVDs, but the precise causes that trigger cardiac diseases and their progression are still largely unknown. The lack of reliable human model systems for such diseases has hampered the unraveling of the underlying molecular mechanisms and cellular processes involved in heart diseases at their initial stage and during their progression. Over the past decade, significant scientific advances in the field of stem cell biology have literally revolutionized the study of human disease in vitro. Remarkably, the possibility to generate disease-relevant cell types from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has developed into an unprecedented and powerful opportunity to achieve the long-standing ambition to investigate human diseases at a cellular level, uncovering their molecular mechanisms, and finally to translate bench discoveries into potential new therapeutic strategies. This review provides an update on previous and current research in the field of iPSC-driven cardiovascular disease modeling, with the aim of underlining the potential of stem-cell biology-based approaches in the elucidation of the pathophysiology of these life-threatening diseases.
2020
Cardiac differentiation
Cardiac disease modeling
Cardiovascular diseases
Human induced pluripotent stem cells
IPSC-derived cardiomyocytes
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/65045
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