Atherothrombosis, a multifactorial and multistep artery disorder, represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development and progression of atherothrombosis is closely associated with age, gender and a complex relationship between unhealthy lifestyle habits and several genetic risk factors. The imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses is the main biological event leading to the development of a pro-oxidant phenotype, triggering cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the atherothrombotic process. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its late thrombotic complications involve multiple cellular events such as inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations, and platelet activation, contributing to chronic pathological remodeling of the vascular wall, atheromatous plague formation, vascular stenosis, and eventually, thrombus growth and propagation. Emerging studies suggest that clotting activation and endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction play key roles in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence indicates that defective autophagy is closely linked to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which, in turn, are involved in the development and progression of atherosclerotic disease. This topic represents a large field of study aimed at identifying new potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we focus on the major role played by the autophagic pathway induced by oxidative stress in the modulation of EC dysfunction as a background to understand its potential role in the development of atherothrombosis.
|Titolo:||Oxidative stress triggers defective autophagy in endothelial cells: Role in atherothrombosis development|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2021|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.2 Recensione in rivista|