Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are a more manageable alternative than vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to prevent stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and to prevent and treat venous thromboembolism. Despite their widespread use in clinical practice, there are still some unresolved issues on optimizing their use in particular clinical settings. Herein, we reviewed the current clinical evidence on uses of DOACs from pharmacology and clinical indications to safety and practical issues such as drugs and food interactions. Dabigatran is the DOAC most affected by interactions with drugs and food, although all DOACs demonstrate a favorable pharmacokinetic profile. Management issues associated with perioperative procedures, bleeding treatment, and special populations (pregnancy, renal and hepatic impairment, elderly, and oncologic patients) have been discussed. Literature evidence shows that DOACs are at least as effective as VKAs, with a favorable safety profile; data are particularly encouraging in using low doses of edoxaban in elderly patients, and edoxaban and rivaroxaban in the treatment of venous thromboembolism in oncologic patients. In the next year, DOAC clinical indications are likely to be further extended.

Direct Oral Anticoagulants: From Randomized Clinical Trials to Real-World Clinical Practice

Roberti R.;Iannone L. F.;Palleria C.;Curcio A.;Rossi M.;Sciacqua A.;Armentaro G.;Vero A.;Manti A.;Cassano V.;Russo E.;De Sarro G.;Citraro R.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are a more manageable alternative than vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to prevent stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and to prevent and treat venous thromboembolism. Despite their widespread use in clinical practice, there are still some unresolved issues on optimizing their use in particular clinical settings. Herein, we reviewed the current clinical evidence on uses of DOACs from pharmacology and clinical indications to safety and practical issues such as drugs and food interactions. Dabigatran is the DOAC most affected by interactions with drugs and food, although all DOACs demonstrate a favorable pharmacokinetic profile. Management issues associated with perioperative procedures, bleeding treatment, and special populations (pregnancy, renal and hepatic impairment, elderly, and oncologic patients) have been discussed. Literature evidence shows that DOACs are at least as effective as VKAs, with a favorable safety profile; data are particularly encouraging in using low doses of edoxaban in elderly patients, and edoxaban and rivaroxaban in the treatment of venous thromboembolism in oncologic patients. In the next year, DOAC clinical indications are likely to be further extended.
2021
clinical practice
Direct oral anticoagulants
drug–drug interactions
pharmacology
randomized clinical trials
safety
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/71785
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