Heart failure (HF) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represent two important public health problems, and despite improvements in the management of both diseases, they are responsible for high rates of hospitalizations and mortality. T2DM accelerates physiological cardiac aging through hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Thus, HF and T2DM are chronic diseases widely represented in elderly people who often are affected by numerous comorbidities with important functional limitations making it difficult to apply the current guidelines. Several antidiabetic drugs should be used with caution in elderly individuals with T2DM. For instance, sulfonylureas should be avoided due to the risk of hypoglycemia associated with its use. Insulin should be used with caution because it is associated with higher risk of hypoglycemia, and may determine fluid retention which can lead to worsening of HF. Thiazolindinediones should be avoided due to the increased risk of fluid retention and HF. Biguanides may lead to a slightly increased risk of lactic acidosis in particular in elderly individuals with impaired renal function. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are safe having few side effects, minimal risk of hypoglycemia, and a neutral effect on cardiovascular (CV) outcome, even if it has been reported that saxagliptin treatment is associated with increased risk of hospitalizations for HF (hHF). Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) have shown a CV protection without a significant reduction in hHF. On the other hand, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have shown a significant improvement in CV outcome, with a strong reduction of hHF and a positive impact on renal damage progression. However, it is necessary to consider the possible some side effects related to their use in elderly individuals including hypotension, bone fractures, and ketoacidosis. It is important to remark that elderly patients, in particular the very elderly, are not sufficiently represented in the trials; thus, the management and treatment of elderly diabetic patients with HF should be mainly based on the integration of scientific evidence with clinical judgment and patients’ condition, with respect to the dignity and quality of life.

Pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes in elderly patients with heart failure: randomized trials and beyond

Sciacqua A.
;
Succurro E.;Armentaro G.;Miceli S.;Sesti G.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Heart failure (HF) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represent two important public health problems, and despite improvements in the management of both diseases, they are responsible for high rates of hospitalizations and mortality. T2DM accelerates physiological cardiac aging through hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Thus, HF and T2DM are chronic diseases widely represented in elderly people who often are affected by numerous comorbidities with important functional limitations making it difficult to apply the current guidelines. Several antidiabetic drugs should be used with caution in elderly individuals with T2DM. For instance, sulfonylureas should be avoided due to the risk of hypoglycemia associated with its use. Insulin should be used with caution because it is associated with higher risk of hypoglycemia, and may determine fluid retention which can lead to worsening of HF. Thiazolindinediones should be avoided due to the increased risk of fluid retention and HF. Biguanides may lead to a slightly increased risk of lactic acidosis in particular in elderly individuals with impaired renal function. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are safe having few side effects, minimal risk of hypoglycemia, and a neutral effect on cardiovascular (CV) outcome, even if it has been reported that saxagliptin treatment is associated with increased risk of hospitalizations for HF (hHF). Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) have shown a CV protection without a significant reduction in hHF. On the other hand, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have shown a significant improvement in CV outcome, with a strong reduction of hHF and a positive impact on renal damage progression. However, it is necessary to consider the possible some side effects related to their use in elderly individuals including hypotension, bone fractures, and ketoacidosis. It is important to remark that elderly patients, in particular the very elderly, are not sufficiently represented in the trials; thus, the management and treatment of elderly diabetic patients with HF should be mainly based on the integration of scientific evidence with clinical judgment and patients’ condition, with respect to the dignity and quality of life.
2021
Antidiabetic drugs
Elderly
Frailty
Heart failure
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/73126
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 14
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 14
social impact