Immunotherapy is presently one of the most promising areas of investigation and development for the treatment of cancer. While immune checkpoint-blocking monoclonal antibodies and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell-based therapy have recently provided in some cases valuable therapeutic options, the goal of cure has not yet been achieved for most malignancies and more efforts are urgently needed. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNA), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), regulate several biological processes via selective targeting of crucial molecular signaling pathways. Recently, the key roles of miRNA and lncRNAs as regulators of the immune-response in cancer have progressively emerged, since they may act (i) by shaping the intrinsic tumor cell and microenvironment (TME) properties; (ii) by regulating angiogenesis, immune-escape, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasion, and drug resistance; and (iii) by acting as potential biomarkers for prognostic assessment and prediction of response to immunotherapy. In this review, we provide an overview on the role of ncRNAs in modulating the immune response and the TME. We discuss the potential use of ncRNAs as potential biomarkers or as targets for development or clinical translation of new therapeutics. Finally, we discuss the potential combinatory approaches based on ncRNA targeting agents and tumor immune-checkpoint inhibitor antibodies or CAR-T for the experimental treatment of human cancer.

Mirnas and lncrnas as novel therapeutic targets to improve cancer immunotherapy

Riillo C.;Scionti F.;Grillone K.;Caracciolo D.;Arbitrio M.;Tagliaferri P.;Tassone P.
Supervision
2021-01-01

Abstract

Immunotherapy is presently one of the most promising areas of investigation and development for the treatment of cancer. While immune checkpoint-blocking monoclonal antibodies and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell-based therapy have recently provided in some cases valuable therapeutic options, the goal of cure has not yet been achieved for most malignancies and more efforts are urgently needed. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNA), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), regulate several biological processes via selective targeting of crucial molecular signaling pathways. Recently, the key roles of miRNA and lncRNAs as regulators of the immune-response in cancer have progressively emerged, since they may act (i) by shaping the intrinsic tumor cell and microenvironment (TME) properties; (ii) by regulating angiogenesis, immune-escape, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasion, and drug resistance; and (iii) by acting as potential biomarkers for prognostic assessment and prediction of response to immunotherapy. In this review, we provide an overview on the role of ncRNAs in modulating the immune response and the TME. We discuss the potential use of ncRNAs as potential biomarkers or as targets for development or clinical translation of new therapeutics. Finally, we discuss the potential combinatory approaches based on ncRNA targeting agents and tumor immune-checkpoint inhibitor antibodies or CAR-T for the experimental treatment of human cancer.
2021
Cancer
Immunotherapy
LncRNA
Long noncoding RNA
MicroRNA
MiRNA
Noncoding RNA
RNA therapeutics
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/73891
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