Different bacterial families colonize most mucosal tissues in the human organism such as the skin, mouth, vagina, respiratory, and gastrointestinal districts. In particular, the mammalian intestine hosts a microbial community of between 1,000 and 1,500 bacterial species, collectively called “microbiota.” Co-metabolism between the microbiota and the host system is generated and the symbiotic relationship is mutually beneficial. The balance that is achieved between the microbiota and the host organism is fundamental to the organization of the immune system. Scientific studies have highlighted a direct correlation between the intestinal microbiota and the brain, establishing the existence of the gut microbiota–brain axis. Based on this theory, the microbiota acts on the development, physiology, and cognitive functions of the brain, although the mechanisms involved have not yet been fully interpreted. Similarly, a close relationship between alteration of the intestinal microbiota and the onset of several neurological pathologies has been highlighted. This review aims to point out current knowledge as can be found in literature regarding the connection between intestinal dysbiosis and the onset of particular neurological pathologies such as anxiety and depression, autism spectrum disorder, and multiple sclerosis. These disorders have always been considered to be a consequence of neuronal alteration, but in this review, we hypothesize that these alterations may be non-neuronal in origin, and consider the idea that the composition of the microbiota could be directly involved. In this direction, the following two key points will be highlighted: (1) the direct cross-talk that comes about between neurons and gut microbiota, and (2) the degree of impact of the microbiota on the brain. Could we consider the microbiota a valuable target for reducing or modulating the incidence of certain neurological diseases?

The Contribution of Gut Microbiota–Brain Axis in the Development of Brain Disorders

Maiuolo J.;Gliozzi M.;Musolino V.;Carresi C.;Scarano F.;Nucera S.;Scicchitano M.;Oppedisano F.;Bosco F.;Ruga S.;Zito M. C.;Palma E.;Muscoli C.;Mollace V.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Different bacterial families colonize most mucosal tissues in the human organism such as the skin, mouth, vagina, respiratory, and gastrointestinal districts. In particular, the mammalian intestine hosts a microbial community of between 1,000 and 1,500 bacterial species, collectively called “microbiota.” Co-metabolism between the microbiota and the host system is generated and the symbiotic relationship is mutually beneficial. The balance that is achieved between the microbiota and the host organism is fundamental to the organization of the immune system. Scientific studies have highlighted a direct correlation between the intestinal microbiota and the brain, establishing the existence of the gut microbiota–brain axis. Based on this theory, the microbiota acts on the development, physiology, and cognitive functions of the brain, although the mechanisms involved have not yet been fully interpreted. Similarly, a close relationship between alteration of the intestinal microbiota and the onset of several neurological pathologies has been highlighted. This review aims to point out current knowledge as can be found in literature regarding the connection between intestinal dysbiosis and the onset of particular neurological pathologies such as anxiety and depression, autism spectrum disorder, and multiple sclerosis. These disorders have always been considered to be a consequence of neuronal alteration, but in this review, we hypothesize that these alterations may be non-neuronal in origin, and consider the idea that the composition of the microbiota could be directly involved. In this direction, the following two key points will be highlighted: (1) the direct cross-talk that comes about between neurons and gut microbiota, and (2) the degree of impact of the microbiota on the brain. Could we consider the microbiota a valuable target for reducing or modulating the incidence of certain neurological diseases?
2021
anxiety and depression
autistic spectrum disorders
enteric nervous system
gut microbiota
gut microbiota-brain axis
multiple sclerosis
neurological disorders
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/75434
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