We determined the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of bloodstream infections (BSI) subsequent to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We performed a retrospective study of all patients with definite diagnosis of CDI admitted from January 2014 to December 2014 in two large hospitals in Rome. Two groups of patients were analyzed: those with CDI and subsequent BSI (CDI/BSI+) and those with CDI and no evidence of primary BSI (CDI/BSI-). Data about clinical features, microbiology, treatments, and mortality were obtained. Overall, 393 cases of CDI were included in the final analysis: 72 developed a primary nosocomial BSI, while 321 had CDI without microbiological and clinical evidence of BSI. Etiologic agents of BSI were Candida species (47.3%), Enterobacteriaceae (19.4%), enterococci (13.9%), and mixed infections (19.4%). In multivariate analysis, ribotype 027 status (odds ratio [OR], 6.5), CDI recurrence (OR, 5.5), severe CDI infection (OR, 8.3), and oral vancomycin at >500 mg/day (OR, 3.1) were recognized as factors independently associated with the development of nosocomial BSI. Thirty-day mortality from CDI diagnosis was higher for patients of the CDI/BSI+ group than for the controls (38.9 versus 13.1%; P < 0.001). Among patients of the CDI/BSI+ group, mortality attributable to primary BSI was as high as 57%. Our findings suggest that severe CDI is complicated by the development of nosocomial BSI. Candida species and enteric bacteria appear to be the leading causative pathogens and are associated with poor outcomes.

Risk factors and outcomes for bloodstream infections secondary to Clostridium difficile infection

Russo A.;
2016-01-01

Abstract

We determined the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of bloodstream infections (BSI) subsequent to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We performed a retrospective study of all patients with definite diagnosis of CDI admitted from January 2014 to December 2014 in two large hospitals in Rome. Two groups of patients were analyzed: those with CDI and subsequent BSI (CDI/BSI+) and those with CDI and no evidence of primary BSI (CDI/BSI-). Data about clinical features, microbiology, treatments, and mortality were obtained. Overall, 393 cases of CDI were included in the final analysis: 72 developed a primary nosocomial BSI, while 321 had CDI without microbiological and clinical evidence of BSI. Etiologic agents of BSI were Candida species (47.3%), Enterobacteriaceae (19.4%), enterococci (13.9%), and mixed infections (19.4%). In multivariate analysis, ribotype 027 status (odds ratio [OR], 6.5), CDI recurrence (OR, 5.5), severe CDI infection (OR, 8.3), and oral vancomycin at >500 mg/day (OR, 3.1) were recognized as factors independently associated with the development of nosocomial BSI. Thirty-day mortality from CDI diagnosis was higher for patients of the CDI/BSI+ group than for the controls (38.9 versus 13.1%; P < 0.001). Among patients of the CDI/BSI+ group, mortality attributable to primary BSI was as high as 57%. Our findings suggest that severe CDI is complicated by the development of nosocomial BSI. Candida species and enteric bacteria appear to be the leading causative pathogens and are associated with poor outcomes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/77169
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