Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological and inflammatory autoimmune disease of the Central Nervous System in which selective activation of T and B lymphocytes prompts a reaction against myelin, inducing demyelination and axonal loss. Although MS is recognized to be an autoimmune pathology, the specific causes are many; thus, to date, it has been considered a disorder resulting from environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. Among the environmental factors hypothetically involved in MS, nutrition seems to be well related, although the role of nutritional factors is still unclear. The gut of mammals is home to a bacterial community of about 2000 species known as the "microbiota", whose composition changes throughout the life of each individual. There are five bacterial phylas that make up the microbiota in healthy adults: Firmicutes (79.4%), Bacteroidetes (16.9%), Actinobacteria (2.5%), Proteobacteria (1%) and Verrucomicrobia (0.1%). The diversity and abundance of microbial populations justifies a condition known as eubiosis. On the contrary, the state of dysbiosis refers to altered diversity and abundance of the microbiota. Many studies carried out in the last few years have demonstrated that there is a relationship between the intestinal microflora and the progression of multiple sclerosis. This correlation was also demonstrated by the discovery that patients with MS, treated with specific prebiotics and probiotics, have greatly increased bacterial diversity in the intestinal microbiota, which might be otherwise reduced or absent. In particular, natural extracts of Aloe vera and bergamot fruits, rich in polyphenols and with a high percentage of polysaccharides (mostly found in indigestible and fermentable fibers), appear to be potential candidates to re-equilibrate the gut microbiota in MS patients. The present review article aims to assess the pathophysiological mechanisms that reveal the role of the microbiota in the development of MS. In addition, the potential for supplementing patients undergoing early stages of MS with Aloe vera as well as bergamot fibers, on top of conventional drug treatments, is discussed.

Involvement of the Intestinal Microbiota in the Appearance of Multiple Sclerosis: Aloe vera and Citrus bergamia as Potential Candidates for Intestinal Health

Maiuolo, Jessica
;
Musolino, Vincenzo;Gliozzi, Micaela;Carresi, Cristina;Scarano, Federica;Nucera, Saverio;Scicchitano, Miriam;Oppedisano, Francesca;Bosco, Francesca;Macri, Roberta;Palma, Ernesto;Muscoli, Carolina;Mollace, Vincenzo
2022-01-01

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological and inflammatory autoimmune disease of the Central Nervous System in which selective activation of T and B lymphocytes prompts a reaction against myelin, inducing demyelination and axonal loss. Although MS is recognized to be an autoimmune pathology, the specific causes are many; thus, to date, it has been considered a disorder resulting from environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. Among the environmental factors hypothetically involved in MS, nutrition seems to be well related, although the role of nutritional factors is still unclear. The gut of mammals is home to a bacterial community of about 2000 species known as the "microbiota", whose composition changes throughout the life of each individual. There are five bacterial phylas that make up the microbiota in healthy adults: Firmicutes (79.4%), Bacteroidetes (16.9%), Actinobacteria (2.5%), Proteobacteria (1%) and Verrucomicrobia (0.1%). The diversity and abundance of microbial populations justifies a condition known as eubiosis. On the contrary, the state of dysbiosis refers to altered diversity and abundance of the microbiota. Many studies carried out in the last few years have demonstrated that there is a relationship between the intestinal microflora and the progression of multiple sclerosis. This correlation was also demonstrated by the discovery that patients with MS, treated with specific prebiotics and probiotics, have greatly increased bacterial diversity in the intestinal microbiota, which might be otherwise reduced or absent. In particular, natural extracts of Aloe vera and bergamot fruits, rich in polyphenols and with a high percentage of polysaccharides (mostly found in indigestible and fermentable fibers), appear to be potential candidates to re-equilibrate the gut microbiota in MS patients. The present review article aims to assess the pathophysiological mechanisms that reveal the role of the microbiota in the development of MS. In addition, the potential for supplementing patients undergoing early stages of MS with Aloe vera as well as bergamot fibers, on top of conventional drug treatments, is discussed.
2022
Aloe vera
Citrus bergamia
SCFAs
acemannans
gut microbiota
microbiota–brain communication
milk
multiple sclerosis
nutrition
Animals
Dysbiosis
Humans
Mammals
Verrucomicrobia
Aloe
Citrus
Gastrointestinal Microbiome
Multiple Sclerosis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/81547
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