Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease, is linked to a variety of internal and external factors present from the early stages of the disease. There are several risk factors related to the pathogenesis of AD, among these exosomes and microRNAs (miRNAs) are of particular importance. Exosomes are nanocarriers released from many different cell types, including neuronal cells. Through the transfer of bioactive molecules, they play an important role both in the maintenance of physiological and in pathological conditions. Exosomes could be carriers of potential biomarkers useful for the assessment of disease progression and for therapeutic applications. miRNAs are small noncoding endogenous RNA sequences active in the regulation of protein expression, and alteration of miRNA expression can result in a dysregulation of key genes and pathways that contribute to disease development. Indeed, the involvement of exosomal miRNAs has been highlighted in various neurodegenerative diseases, and this opens the possibility that dysregulated exosomal miRNA profiles may influence AD disease. The advances in exosome-related biomarker detection in AD are summarized. Finally, in this review, we highlight the use of exosomal miRNAs as essential biomarkers in preclinical and clinical studies in Alzheimer's disease, also taking a look at their potential clinical value.

Exosomal miRNAs as Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease

Manna, Ida;De Benedittis, Selene;Quattrone, Andrea;Maisano, Domenico;Iaccino, Enrico;Quattrone, Aldo
2020-01-01

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease, is linked to a variety of internal and external factors present from the early stages of the disease. There are several risk factors related to the pathogenesis of AD, among these exosomes and microRNAs (miRNAs) are of particular importance. Exosomes are nanocarriers released from many different cell types, including neuronal cells. Through the transfer of bioactive molecules, they play an important role both in the maintenance of physiological and in pathological conditions. Exosomes could be carriers of potential biomarkers useful for the assessment of disease progression and for therapeutic applications. miRNAs are small noncoding endogenous RNA sequences active in the regulation of protein expression, and alteration of miRNA expression can result in a dysregulation of key genes and pathways that contribute to disease development. Indeed, the involvement of exosomal miRNAs has been highlighted in various neurodegenerative diseases, and this opens the possibility that dysregulated exosomal miRNA profiles may influence AD disease. The advances in exosome-related biomarker detection in AD are summarized. Finally, in this review, we highlight the use of exosomal miRNAs as essential biomarkers in preclinical and clinical studies in Alzheimer's disease, also taking a look at their potential clinical value.
2020
Alzheimer’s disease
biomarkers
exosomal miRNAs
exosomes
miRNAs
neurodegeneration
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/82369
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