Acute liver failure (ALF) presents with an acute abnormality of liver blood tests in an individual without underlying chronic liver disease. The clinical course leads to the development of coagulopathy and hepatic encephalopathy. The role of nutrition in its prevention and treatment remains uncertain. We aimed to review literature data on the concept of ALF and the role of nutrition in its treatment and prevention, considering the impact of gut microbiota dysbiosis and eubiosis. We conducted a review of the literature on the main medical databases using the following keywords and acronyms and their associations: liver failure, nutrition, branched-chain amino acids, gut microbiota, dysbiosis, and probiotics. Upon their arrival at the emergency department, an early, accurate nutritional assessment is crucial for individuals with ALF. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), stable euglycemia maintenance, and moderate caloric support are crucial for this subset of patients. An excessive protein load must be avoided because it worsens hepatic encephalopathy. Preclinical evidence supports future probiotics use for ALF treatment/prevention. Nutritional support and treatment for ALF are crucial steps against patient morbidity and mortality. BCAAs and euglycemia remain the mainstay of nutritional treatment of ALF. Gut dysbiosis re-modulation has an emerging and natural-history changing impact on ALF.

Nutritional Support in Acute Liver Failure

Ludovico Abenavoli;Anna Caterina Procopio;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Acute liver failure (ALF) presents with an acute abnormality of liver blood tests in an individual without underlying chronic liver disease. The clinical course leads to the development of coagulopathy and hepatic encephalopathy. The role of nutrition in its prevention and treatment remains uncertain. We aimed to review literature data on the concept of ALF and the role of nutrition in its treatment and prevention, considering the impact of gut microbiota dysbiosis and eubiosis. We conducted a review of the literature on the main medical databases using the following keywords and acronyms and their associations: liver failure, nutrition, branched-chain amino acids, gut microbiota, dysbiosis, and probiotics. Upon their arrival at the emergency department, an early, accurate nutritional assessment is crucial for individuals with ALF. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), stable euglycemia maintenance, and moderate caloric support are crucial for this subset of patients. An excessive protein load must be avoided because it worsens hepatic encephalopathy. Preclinical evidence supports future probiotics use for ALF treatment/prevention. Nutritional support and treatment for ALF are crucial steps against patient morbidity and mortality. BCAAs and euglycemia remain the mainstay of nutritional treatment of ALF. Gut dysbiosis re-modulation has an emerging and natural-history changing impact on ALF.
2022
branched-chain amino acids; dysbiosis; gut microbiota; liver failure; nutrition; probiotics.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/82643
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