: Chronic low-back pain (CLBP) is a common disease with several negative consequences on the quality of life, work and activity ability and increased costs to the health-care system. When pharmacological, psychological, physical and occupational therapies or surgery fail to reduce CLBP, patients may be a candidate for Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS). SCS consists of the transcutaneous or surgical implantation of different types of electrodes in the epidural space; electrodes are then connected to an Implanted Pulse Generator (IPG) that generates stimulating currents. Through spinal and supraspinal mechanisms based on the "gate control theory for pain transmission", SCS reduces symptoms of CLBP in the almost totality of well-selected patients and its effect lasts up to eight years in around 75% of patients. However, the evidence in favor of SCS still remains weak, mainly due to poor trial methodology and design. This narrative review is mainly addressed to those professionals that may encounter patients with CLBP failing conventional treatments. For this reason, we report the mechanisms of pain relief during SCS, the technical features and some clinical considerations about the application of SCS in patients with CLBP.
Guzzi, Giusy;Della Torre, Attilio;La Torre, Domenico;Volpentesta, Giorgio;Lavano, Angelo;Longhini, Federico
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