Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is frequently complicated by central nervous system (CNS) metastases affecting patients' life expectancy and quality. At the present clinical trials including neurosurgery, radiotherapy (RT) and systemic treatments alone or in combination have provided controversial results. CNS involvement is even more frequent in NSCLC patients with EGFR activating mutations or ALK rearrangement suggesting a role of target therapy in the upfront treatment in place of loco-regionals treatments (i.e. RT and/or surgery). So far clinical research has not explored the potential role of accurate brain imaging (i.e. MRI instead of the routine total-body contrast CT and/or PET/CT staging) to identify patients that could benefit of local therapies. Moreover, for patients who require concomitant RT there are no clear guidelines on the timing of intervention with respect to innovative precision medicine approaches with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors, ALK-inhibitors and/or immuno-oncological therapies. On this basis the present review describes the therapeutic strategies integrating medical and radiation oncology in patients with metastatic NSCLC (mNSCLC) adenocarcinoma with CNS involvement and EGFR activating mutations or ALK rearrangement.
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