Male infertility has been recognized as a global health problem. Semen analysis, although considered the golden standard, may not provide a confident male infertility diagnosis alone. Hence, there is the urgent request for an innovative and reliable platform to detect biomarkers of infertility. The rapid expansion of mass spectrometry (MS) technology in the field of the 'omics' disciplines, has incredibly proved the great potential of MS-based diagnostic tests to revolutionize the future of pathology, microbiology and laboratory medicine. Despite the increasing success in the microbiology area, MS-biomarkers of male infertility currently remain a proteomic challenge. In order to address this issue, this review encompasses proteomics investigations by untargeted approaches with a special focus on experimental designs and strategies (bottom-up and top-down) for seminal fluid proteome profiling. The studies reported here witness the efforts of the scientific community to address these investigations aimed at the discovery of MS-biomarkers of male infertility. Proteomics untargeted approaches, depending on the study design, might provide a great plethora of biomarkers not only for a male infertility diagnosis, but also to address a new MS-biomarkers classification of infertility subtypes. From the early detection to the evaluation of infertility grade, new MS-derived biomarkers might also predict long-term outcomes and clinical management of infertility.
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