Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode that can induce disseminated infection in immunocompromised patients. It is most commonly acquired in tropical and subtropical countries; however, foci of the infection have also been reported in temperate geographic areas. In non-endemic areas, the diagnosis of an S. stercoralis infection is challenging due to the variety of clinical symptoms. Herein, we report the case of a patient, born and raised in the Calabria region of Southern Italy, who presented with melanoma and S. stercoralis hyperinfection, which is characterized by dyspnea, productive cough, inappetence, marked asthenia, weight loss, and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia. He worked as a farmer and never traveled to another country known to be endemic for S. stercoralis. Despite the prompt identification of the parasite with sputum microscopy and the initiation of therapy with ivermectin and piperacillin-tazobactam, the patient later died. This case underscores the continued risk for S. stercoralis infection even in geographic areas that were previously considered non-endemic for the nematode and indicates that the geographic distribution of S. stercoralis may be expanding in Italy.
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