Purpose Neuroendocrine neoplasms can occur as part of inherited disorders, usually in the form of well-differentiated, slow-growing tumors (NET). The main predisposing syndromes include: multiple endocrine neoplasias type 1 (MEN1), associated with a large spectrum of gastroenteropancreatic and thoracic NETs, and type 4 (MEN4), associated with a wide tumour spectrum similar to that of MEN1; von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL), tuberous sclerosis (TSC), and neurofibromatosis 1 (NF-1), associated with pancreatic NETs. In the present review, we propose a reappraisal of the genetic basis and clinical features of gastroenteropancreatic and thoracic NETs in the setting of inherited syndromes with a special focus on molecularly targeted therapies for these lesions. Methods Literature search was systematically performed through online databases, including MEDLINE (via PubMed), and Scopus using multiple keywords' combinations up to June 2022. Results Somatostatin analogues (SSAs) remain the mainstay of systemic treatment for NETs, and radiolabelled SSAs can be used for peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy for somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive NETs. Apart of these SSTR-targeted therapies, other targeted agents have been approved for NETs: the mTOR inhibitor everolimus for lung, gastroenteropatic and unknown origin NET, and sunitinib, an antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor, for pancreatic NET. Novel targeted therapies with other antiangiogenic agents and immunotherapies have been also under evaluation. Conclusions Major advances in the understanding of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of NET development in the context of inherited endocrine disorders have led to the recognition of molecular targetable alterations, providing a rationale for the implementation of treatments and development of novel targeted therapies.

Neuroendocrine neoplasms in the context of inherited tumor syndromes: a reappraisal focused on targeted therapies

Tarsitano, M G;Colao, A;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Purpose Neuroendocrine neoplasms can occur as part of inherited disorders, usually in the form of well-differentiated, slow-growing tumors (NET). The main predisposing syndromes include: multiple endocrine neoplasias type 1 (MEN1), associated with a large spectrum of gastroenteropancreatic and thoracic NETs, and type 4 (MEN4), associated with a wide tumour spectrum similar to that of MEN1; von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL), tuberous sclerosis (TSC), and neurofibromatosis 1 (NF-1), associated with pancreatic NETs. In the present review, we propose a reappraisal of the genetic basis and clinical features of gastroenteropancreatic and thoracic NETs in the setting of inherited syndromes with a special focus on molecularly targeted therapies for these lesions. Methods Literature search was systematically performed through online databases, including MEDLINE (via PubMed), and Scopus using multiple keywords' combinations up to June 2022. Results Somatostatin analogues (SSAs) remain the mainstay of systemic treatment for NETs, and radiolabelled SSAs can be used for peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy for somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive NETs. Apart of these SSTR-targeted therapies, other targeted agents have been approved for NETs: the mTOR inhibitor everolimus for lung, gastroenteropatic and unknown origin NET, and sunitinib, an antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor, for pancreatic NET. Novel targeted therapies with other antiangiogenic agents and immunotherapies have been also under evaluation. Conclusions Major advances in the understanding of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of NET development in the context of inherited endocrine disorders have led to the recognition of molecular targetable alterations, providing a rationale for the implementation of treatments and development of novel targeted therapies.
2023
MEN1
MEN4
Neuroendocrine neoplasms
Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF-1)
Targeted therapies
Tuberous sclerosis (TSC)
Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) syndrome
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/86319
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