Despite the efforts and advances done in the last few decades, cancer still remains one of the main leading causes of death worldwide. Nanomedicine and in particular extracellular vesicles are one of the most potent tools to improve the effectiveness of anticancer therapies. In these attempts, the aim of this work is to realize a hybrid nanosystem through the fusion between the M1 macrophages-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs-M1) and thermoresponsive liposomes, in order to obtain a drug delivery system able to exploit the intrinsic tumor targeting capability of immune cells reflected on EVs and thermoresponsiveness of synthetic nanovesicles. The obtained nanocarrier has been physicochemically characterized, and the hybridization process has been validated by cytofluorimetric analysis, while the thermoresponsiveness was in vitro confirmed through the use of a fluorescent probe. Tumor targeting features of hybrid nanovesicles were in vivo investigated on melanoma-induced mice model monitoring the accumulation in tumor site through live imaging and confirmed by cytofluorimetric analysis, showing higher targeting properties of hybrid nanosystem compared to both liposomes and native EVs. These promising results confirmed the ability of this nanosystem to combine the advantages of both nanotechnologies, also highlighting their potential use as effective and safe personalized anticancer nanomedicine. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
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