: A large body of evidence indicates the existence of a complex pathophysiological relationship between cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Mitochondria are crucial organelles whose optimal activity is determined by quality control systems, which regulate critical cellular events, ranging from intermediary metabolism and calcium signaling to mitochondrial dynamics, cell death and mitophagy. Emerging data indicate that impaired mitochondrial quality control drives myocardial dysfunction occurring in several heart diseases, including cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial infarction, ischaemia/reperfusion damage and metabolic cardiomyopathies. On the other hand, diverse human cancers also dysregulate mitochondrial quality control to promote their initiation and progression, suggesting that modulating mitochondrial homeostasis may represent a promising therapeutic strategy both in cardiology and oncology. In this review, first we briefly introduce the physiological mechanisms underlying the mitochondrial quality control system, and then summarize the current understanding about the impact of dysregulated mitochondrial functions in cardiovascular diseases and cancer. We also discuss key mitochondrial mechanisms underlying the increased risk of cardiovascular complications secondary to the main current anticancer strategies, highlighting the potential of strategies aimed at alleviating mitochondrial impairment-related cardiac dysfunction and tumorigenesis. It is hoped that this summary can provide novel insights into precision medicine approaches to reduce cardiovascular and cancer morbidities and mortalities.
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