Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) due to helminths is a rare cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Helminthiases often progresses insidiously, making diagnosis difficult. This was the case of a 72-year-old man, who presented with renal failure, itching and diarrhoea. Urinalysis revealed leukocyturia, microhaematuria and mild proteinuria. A full blood count revealed leucocytosis with eosinophilia. A stool parasitological examination revealed fertilised eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides. Tubulointerstitial nephropathy secondary to A. lumbricoides infection was suspected. A percutaneous renal biopsy was not performed since the patient refused the anti-platelet therapy discontinuation. Mebendazole, albendazole and prednisone therapy was administered. After worm eradiation and discharge, recovery from the parasitosis, absence of pruritus and eosinophilia, and progressive improvement of renal function were observed, strongly suggesting a causal relationship between Ascaris infection and AIN. Parasite infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained renal failure because early diagnosis and treatment are necessary to avoid irreversible complications.
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