: Dialysis adequacy and a state of "eunutrition" are two essential elements to consider in the evaluation of patient undergoing dialysis treatment. Dialysis inadequacy is often associated with malnutrition, and the combination of these two factors significantly worsens the prognosis. In the following monocentric and prospective study, the correlation between nutritional markers and dialytic adequacy was tested in a cohort of patients permanently followed by the peritoneal dialysis clinic, followed consistently for two years. It was therefore evaluated if modification of dialysis therapy, aimed to reach adequacy parameters, could simultaneously improve metabolic parameters. Although there were no frankly malnourished patients, the group of "inadequate" patients had a significantly lower nPCR value. In this same group, after about 6 months, therapeutic measures adopted allowed an overall improvement in Kt/V and nPCR, with other nutritional parameters (such as body weight, albumin, pre-albumin, total cholesterolemia) remaining stable. At the end of the follow-up period the Kt/V of the "inadequate" (<1.7) was higher than the baseline, reaching statistical significance at the 12th and 24th months. Early identification of a dialysis inadequacy, therefore, allowed the execution of therapeutic changes necessary to achieve a lasting improvement in "adequate" replacement therapy, and a temporary improvement in the patient's nutritional status. Suddenly, despite the persistent improvement of the Kt/V there was a new reduction of the nPCR.
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