Dopaminergic degeneration is a central feature of Parkinson's disease (PD), but glial dysfunction may accelerate or trigger neuronal death. In fact, astrocytes play a key role in the maintenance of the blood-brain barrier and detoxification. 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA) is used to induce PD in rodent models due to its specific toxicity to dopaminergic neurons, but its effect on astrocytes has been poorly investigated. Here, we show that 6OHDA dose-dependently impairs autophagy in human U373 cells and primary murine astrocytes in the absence of cell death. LC3II downregulation was observed 6 to 48 h after treatment. Interestingly, 6OHDA enhanced NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) expression and activity in U373 cells, even if 6OHDA turned out not to be its substrate. Autophagic flux was restored by inhibition of NQO2 with S29434, which correlated with a partial reduction in oxidative stress in response to 6OHDA in human and murine astrocytes. NQO2 inhibition also increased the neuroprotective capability of U373 cells, since S29434 protected dopaminergic SHSY5Y cells from 6OHDA-induced cell death when cocultured with astrocytes. The toxic effects of 6OHDA on autophagy were attenuated by silencing NQO2 in human cells and primary astrocytes from NQO2-/- mice. Finally, the analysis of Gene Expression Omnibus datasets showed elevated NQO2 gene expression in the blood cells of early-stage PD patients. These data support a toxifying function of NQO2 in dopaminergic degeneration via negative regulation of autophagy and neuroprotection in astrocytes, suggesting a potential pharmacological target in PD.

Autophagy and neuroprotection in astrocytes exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine is negatively regulated by NQO2: relevance to Parkinson’s disease

Janda, Elzbieta
Supervision
;
Parafati, Maddalena
Investigation
;
Martino, Concetta
Investigation
;
Crupi, Francesco
Investigation
;
Arbitrio, Mariamena
Funding Acquisition
;
Mollace, Vincenzo
Resources
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Dopaminergic degeneration is a central feature of Parkinson's disease (PD), but glial dysfunction may accelerate or trigger neuronal death. In fact, astrocytes play a key role in the maintenance of the blood-brain barrier and detoxification. 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA) is used to induce PD in rodent models due to its specific toxicity to dopaminergic neurons, but its effect on astrocytes has been poorly investigated. Here, we show that 6OHDA dose-dependently impairs autophagy in human U373 cells and primary murine astrocytes in the absence of cell death. LC3II downregulation was observed 6 to 48 h after treatment. Interestingly, 6OHDA enhanced NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) expression and activity in U373 cells, even if 6OHDA turned out not to be its substrate. Autophagic flux was restored by inhibition of NQO2 with S29434, which correlated with a partial reduction in oxidative stress in response to 6OHDA in human and murine astrocytes. NQO2 inhibition also increased the neuroprotective capability of U373 cells, since S29434 protected dopaminergic SHSY5Y cells from 6OHDA-induced cell death when cocultured with astrocytes. The toxic effects of 6OHDA on autophagy were attenuated by silencing NQO2 in human cells and primary astrocytes from NQO2-/- mice. Finally, the analysis of Gene Expression Omnibus datasets showed elevated NQO2 gene expression in the blood cells of early-stage PD patients. These data support a toxifying function of NQO2 in dopaminergic degeneration via negative regulation of autophagy and neuroprotection in astrocytes, suggesting a potential pharmacological target in PD.
2023
QR2
6-hydroxydopamine
Parkinson disease
knock-out cells
astrocyte
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/92131
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