Literature suggests that dementia and, more generally, cognitive impairment affect the capacity to carry out activities of daily living (ADL) in aging. However, it is important to decipher the weight of specific cognitive domains and neurodegenerative profiles mainly related to ADL difficulties. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the nature and strength of the association between cognitive functioning and ADL in healthy older adults, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia. A comprehensive search of the PubMed, PsycINFO (PROQUEST), and Scopus databases for cross-sectional or longitudinal studies up until December 2022. Our meta-analytic results revealed that: overall, instrumental ADL (IADL) showed a significant association with executive functioning, in particular, abstraction ability/concept formation, set-shifting, and processing speed/complex attention/working memory, regardless of type of participants (i.e., healthy older adults, MCI, and dementia); whereas ADL (both basic ADL, BADL, and IADL) significantly correlated with global cognitive functioning and long-term verbal memory, with a moderator effect of clinical condition (e.g., increasing ES based on the level of cognitive impairment). Moreover, visuospatial and language abilities significantly correlated with ADL, mainly when performance-based tasks were used for ADL assessment. These findings emphasize the importance of neuropsychological assessment in aging to early identify people most at risk of functional decline and shed light on the need to consider specific cognitive abilities in rehabilitation programs.

The relation between cognitive functioning and activities of daily living in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia: a meta-analysis

Raimo S.
;
Torchia V.;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Literature suggests that dementia and, more generally, cognitive impairment affect the capacity to carry out activities of daily living (ADL) in aging. However, it is important to decipher the weight of specific cognitive domains and neurodegenerative profiles mainly related to ADL difficulties. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the nature and strength of the association between cognitive functioning and ADL in healthy older adults, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia. A comprehensive search of the PubMed, PsycINFO (PROQUEST), and Scopus databases for cross-sectional or longitudinal studies up until December 2022. Our meta-analytic results revealed that: overall, instrumental ADL (IADL) showed a significant association with executive functioning, in particular, abstraction ability/concept formation, set-shifting, and processing speed/complex attention/working memory, regardless of type of participants (i.e., healthy older adults, MCI, and dementia); whereas ADL (both basic ADL, BADL, and IADL) significantly correlated with global cognitive functioning and long-term verbal memory, with a moderator effect of clinical condition (e.g., increasing ES based on the level of cognitive impairment). Moreover, visuospatial and language abilities significantly correlated with ADL, mainly when performance-based tasks were used for ADL assessment. These findings emphasize the importance of neuropsychological assessment in aging to early identify people most at risk of functional decline and shed light on the need to consider specific cognitive abilities in rehabilitation programs.
2024
Activity of daily living
Dementia
Functional status
Mild cognitive impairment
Older adults
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/95457
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