: The Podolica cattle breed is widespread in southern Italy, and its productivity is characterized by low yields and an extraordinary quality of milk and meats. Most of the milk produced is transformed into "Caciocavallo Podolico" cheese, which is made with 100% Podolica milk. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is the technique that, in this research work, was applied together with machine learning to discriminate 100% Podolica milk from contamination of other Calabrian cattle breeds. The analysis on the test set produced a misclassification percentage of 6.7%. Among the 15 non-Podolica samples in the test set, 2 were misclassified and recognized as Podolica milk even though the milk was from other species. The correct classification rate improved to 100% when the same method was applied to the recognition of Podolica and Pezzata Rossa milk produced by the same farm. Furthermore, this technique was tested for the recognition of Podolica milk mixed with milk from other bovine species. The multivariate model and the respective confusion matrices obtained showed that all the 14 Podolica samples (test set) mixed with 40% non-Podolica milk were correctly classified. In addition, Pezzata Rossa milk produced by the same farm was detected as a contaminant in Podolica milk from the same farm down to concentrations as little as 5% with a 100% correct classification rate in the test set. The method described yielded higher accuracy values when applied to the discrimination of milks from different breeds belonging to the same farm. One of the reasons for this phenomenon could be linked to the elimination of the environmental variable. However, the results obtained in this work demonstrate the possibility of using FTIR to discriminate between milks from different breeds.

Spectral Profiling (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) and Machine Learning for the Recognition of Milk from Different Bovine Breeds

Spina, Anna Antonella;Ceniti, Carlotta;Oppedisano, Francesca;Palma, Ernesto;Britti, Domenico;Piras, Cristian
;
Morittu, Valeria Maria
2024-01-01

Abstract

: The Podolica cattle breed is widespread in southern Italy, and its productivity is characterized by low yields and an extraordinary quality of milk and meats. Most of the milk produced is transformed into "Caciocavallo Podolico" cheese, which is made with 100% Podolica milk. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is the technique that, in this research work, was applied together with machine learning to discriminate 100% Podolica milk from contamination of other Calabrian cattle breeds. The analysis on the test set produced a misclassification percentage of 6.7%. Among the 15 non-Podolica samples in the test set, 2 were misclassified and recognized as Podolica milk even though the milk was from other species. The correct classification rate improved to 100% when the same method was applied to the recognition of Podolica and Pezzata Rossa milk produced by the same farm. Furthermore, this technique was tested for the recognition of Podolica milk mixed with milk from other bovine species. The multivariate model and the respective confusion matrices obtained showed that all the 14 Podolica samples (test set) mixed with 40% non-Podolica milk were correctly classified. In addition, Pezzata Rossa milk produced by the same farm was detected as a contaminant in Podolica milk from the same farm down to concentrations as little as 5% with a 100% correct classification rate in the test set. The method described yielded higher accuracy values when applied to the discrimination of milks from different breeds belonging to the same farm. One of the reasons for this phenomenon could be linked to the elimination of the environmental variable. However, the results obtained in this work demonstrate the possibility of using FTIR to discriminate between milks from different breeds.
2024
(FTIR) spectral profiling
Podolica cow milk
cow milk
machine learning
multivariate analysis
traceability
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/95757
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