Background: ANGPTL3 (angiopoietin-like protein 3) is a circulating protein with a key role in maintaining lipoprotein homeostasis. A monoclonal antibody against ANGPTL3 is an approved and well-tolerated treatment to reduce lipoproteins in familial hypercholesterolemia homozygotes. However, the reduction of hepatic ANGPTL3 synthesis using an antisense oligonucleotide unexpectedly resulted in a dose-dependent increase in liver lipid content and circulating transaminases, resulting in the termination of the clinical trial. Meanwhile, the use of silencing RNAs remains an area of active investigation. Our study sought to investigate whether intracellular downregulation of ANGPTL3 may lead to a primary increase in neutral lipids within the hepatocyte. Methods: We downregulated ANGPTL3 by silencing RNA in primary human hepatocytes 3-dimensional spheroids, HepG2/LX-2 3-dimensional spheroids, and in HepG2, Hep3B2, and Huh7 cultured in 2 dimensions. Results: ANGPTL3 downregulation increased neutral lipids in all models investigated. Interestingly, ANGPTL3 induced lower intracellular deiodinase type 1 protein levels resulting in a reduction in beta-oxidation and causing an increase in triglycerides stored in lipid droplets. Conclusions: In conclusion, intracellular ANGPTL3 downregulation by silencing RNA led to an increase in triglycerides content due to a reduction in energy substrate utilization resembling a primary intracellular hepatocyte hypothyroidism.

ANGPTL3 Downregulation Increases Intracellular Lipids by Reducing Energy Utilization

Maurotti, Samantha;Mirarchi, Angela;Scionti, Francesca;Mancina, Rosellina M;Spagnuolo, Rocco;Romeo, Stefano
2024-01-01

Abstract

Background: ANGPTL3 (angiopoietin-like protein 3) is a circulating protein with a key role in maintaining lipoprotein homeostasis. A monoclonal antibody against ANGPTL3 is an approved and well-tolerated treatment to reduce lipoproteins in familial hypercholesterolemia homozygotes. However, the reduction of hepatic ANGPTL3 synthesis using an antisense oligonucleotide unexpectedly resulted in a dose-dependent increase in liver lipid content and circulating transaminases, resulting in the termination of the clinical trial. Meanwhile, the use of silencing RNAs remains an area of active investigation. Our study sought to investigate whether intracellular downregulation of ANGPTL3 may lead to a primary increase in neutral lipids within the hepatocyte. Methods: We downregulated ANGPTL3 by silencing RNA in primary human hepatocytes 3-dimensional spheroids, HepG2/LX-2 3-dimensional spheroids, and in HepG2, Hep3B2, and Huh7 cultured in 2 dimensions. Results: ANGPTL3 downregulation increased neutral lipids in all models investigated. Interestingly, ANGPTL3 induced lower intracellular deiodinase type 1 protein levels resulting in a reduction in beta-oxidation and causing an increase in triglycerides stored in lipid droplets. Conclusions: In conclusion, intracellular ANGPTL3 downregulation by silencing RNA led to an increase in triglycerides content due to a reduction in energy substrate utilization resembling a primary intracellular hepatocyte hypothyroidism.
2024
ablation
homozygote
hypothyroidism
steatosis
triglycerides
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/95937
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