The discovery of the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the onset and progression of malignancies is a promising frontier of cancer genetics. It is clear that ncRNAs are candidates for therapeutic intervention, since they may act as biomarkers or key regulators of cancer gene network. Recently, profiling and sequencing of ncRNAs disclosed deep deregulation in human cancers mostly due to aberrant mechanisms of ncRNAs biogenesis, such as amplification, deletion, abnormal epigenetic or transcriptional regulation. Although dysregulated ncRNAs may promote hallmarks of cancer as oncogenes or antagonize them as tumor suppressors, the mechanisms behind these events remain to be clarified. The development of new bioinformatic tools as well as novel molecular technologies is a challenging opportunity to disclose the role of the "dark matter"of the genome. In this review, we focus on currently available platforms, computational analyses and experimental strategies to investigate ncRNAs in cancer. We highlight the differences among experimental approaches aimed to dissect miRNAs and lncRNAs, which are the most studied ncRNAs. These two classes indeed need different investigation taking into account their intrinsic characteristics, such as length, structures and also the interacting molecules. Finally, we discuss the relevance of ncRNAs in clinical practice by considering promises and challenges behind the bench to bedside translation.

Non-coding RNAs in cancer: Platforms and strategies for investigating the genomic "dark matter"

Grillone K.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Riillo C.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Scionti F.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Rocca R.;Tradigo G.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Guzzi P. H.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Alcaro S.
Supervision
;
Tagliaferri P.
Supervision
;
Tassone P.
Supervision
;
2020-01-01

Abstract

The discovery of the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the onset and progression of malignancies is a promising frontier of cancer genetics. It is clear that ncRNAs are candidates for therapeutic intervention, since they may act as biomarkers or key regulators of cancer gene network. Recently, profiling and sequencing of ncRNAs disclosed deep deregulation in human cancers mostly due to aberrant mechanisms of ncRNAs biogenesis, such as amplification, deletion, abnormal epigenetic or transcriptional regulation. Although dysregulated ncRNAs may promote hallmarks of cancer as oncogenes or antagonize them as tumor suppressors, the mechanisms behind these events remain to be clarified. The development of new bioinformatic tools as well as novel molecular technologies is a challenging opportunity to disclose the role of the "dark matter"of the genome. In this review, we focus on currently available platforms, computational analyses and experimental strategies to investigate ncRNAs in cancer. We highlight the differences among experimental approaches aimed to dissect miRNAs and lncRNAs, which are the most studied ncRNAs. These two classes indeed need different investigation taking into account their intrinsic characteristics, such as length, structures and also the interacting molecules. Finally, we discuss the relevance of ncRNAs in clinical practice by considering promises and challenges behind the bench to bedside translation.
2020
Cancer genetics
lncRNAs
Long-non coding RNAs
microRNAs
miRNAs
ncRNA functions
Non-coding RNAs
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/62527
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