Crohn's Disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that potentially involves the entire gastrointestinal tract. Perianal fistulizing CD (pCD) is a serious and frequent complication associated with significant morbidities and a heavy negative impact on quality of life. The aim of CD treatment is to induce and maintain disease remission and to promote mucosal repair. Unfortunately, even the best therapeutic regimens in pCD do not have long-term efficacy and cause a significant number of side effects. Therefore, it is mandatory to study new therapeutical options such as the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). These cells promote tissue repair via the induction of immunomodulation. The present review aims to analyze the existing updated scientific literature on MSCs adoption in the treatment of pCD to evaluate its efficacy and safety and to compare the use of bone marrow and adipose tissue derived MSCs, type of administration, and dose required for recovery.
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