Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are two gut hormones, defined incretins, responsible for the amplification of insulin secretion after oral glucose intake. Unlike GLP-1, GIP has little acute effect on insulin secretion and no effect on food intake; instead it seems that the GIP may be an obesity-promoting hormone. In patients with type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) some studies found a downregulation of GIP receptors on pancreatic β cells caused by hyperglycemic state, but the glucagonotropic effect persisted. Agonists of the receptor for the GLP-1 have proven successful for the treatment of diabetes, since they reduce the risk for cardiovascular and renal events, but the possible application of GIP as therapy for T2DM is discussed. Moreover, the latest evidence showed a synergetic effect when GIP was combined with GLP-1 in monomolecular co-agonists. In fact, compared with the separate infusion of each hormone, the combination increased both insulin response and glucagonostatic response. In accordance with theseconsiderations, a dual GIP/GLP-1receptor agonist, i.e., Tirzepatide, known as a “twincretin” had been developed. In the pre-clinical trials, as well as Phase 1–3 clinical trials, Tirzepatideshowedpotent glucose lowering and weight loss effects within an acceptable safety.

Role of a dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)/glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (twincretin) in glycemic control: From pathophysiology to treatment

Provenzano M.;Zaffina I.;Pujia R.;Andreucci M.;Sciacqua A.;Arturi F.
2022-01-01

Abstract

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are two gut hormones, defined incretins, responsible for the amplification of insulin secretion after oral glucose intake. Unlike GLP-1, GIP has little acute effect on insulin secretion and no effect on food intake; instead it seems that the GIP may be an obesity-promoting hormone. In patients with type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) some studies found a downregulation of GIP receptors on pancreatic β cells caused by hyperglycemic state, but the glucagonotropic effect persisted. Agonists of the receptor for the GLP-1 have proven successful for the treatment of diabetes, since they reduce the risk for cardiovascular and renal events, but the possible application of GIP as therapy for T2DM is discussed. Moreover, the latest evidence showed a synergetic effect when GIP was combined with GLP-1 in monomolecular co-agonists. In fact, compared with the separate infusion of each hormone, the combination increased both insulin response and glucagonostatic response. In accordance with theseconsiderations, a dual GIP/GLP-1receptor agonist, i.e., Tirzepatide, known as a “twincretin” had been developed. In the pre-clinical trials, as well as Phase 1–3 clinical trials, Tirzepatideshowedpotent glucose lowering and weight loss effects within an acceptable safety.
2022
GIP
Hyperglycemia
Pathophysiology
Therapeutics
Twincretin
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/73125
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