The natural environment represents an important source of drugs that originates from the terrestrial and, in minority, marine organisms. Indeed, the marine environment represents a largely untapped source in the process of drug discovery. Among all marine organisms, sponges with algae represent the richest source of compounds showing anticancer activity. In this study, the two sec-ondary metabolites pelorol (PEL) and 5-epi-ilimaquinone (EPI), purified from Dactylospongia elegans were investigated for their anti-melanoma activity. PEL and EPI induced cell growth repression of 501Mel melanoma cells in a concentration-and time-dependent manner. A cell cycle block in the G1 phase by PEL and EPI was also observed. Furthermore, PEL and EPI induced significant accumulation of DNA histone fragments in the cytoplasmic fraction, indicating a pro-apoptotic effect of both compounds. At the molecular level, PEL and EPI induced apoptosis through the increase in pro-apoptotic BAX expression, confirmed by the decrease in its silencing miR-214-3p and the decrease in the anti-apoptotic BCL-2, MCL1, and BIRC-5 mRNA expression, attested by the increase in their silencing miRNAs, i.e., miR-193a-3p and miR-16-5p. In conclusion, our data indicate that PEL and EPI exert cytotoxicity activity against 501Mel melanoma cells promoting apoptotic signaling and inducing changes in miRNA expression and their downstream effectors. For these reasons could represent promising lead compounds in the anti-melanoma drug research.

Pro-apoptotic Activity of the Marine Sponge Dactylospongia elegans Metabolites Pelorol and 5-epi-ilimaquinone on Human 501Mel Melanoma Cells

Carpi S.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

The natural environment represents an important source of drugs that originates from the terrestrial and, in minority, marine organisms. Indeed, the marine environment represents a largely untapped source in the process of drug discovery. Among all marine organisms, sponges with algae represent the richest source of compounds showing anticancer activity. In this study, the two sec-ondary metabolites pelorol (PEL) and 5-epi-ilimaquinone (EPI), purified from Dactylospongia elegans were investigated for their anti-melanoma activity. PEL and EPI induced cell growth repression of 501Mel melanoma cells in a concentration-and time-dependent manner. A cell cycle block in the G1 phase by PEL and EPI was also observed. Furthermore, PEL and EPI induced significant accumulation of DNA histone fragments in the cytoplasmic fraction, indicating a pro-apoptotic effect of both compounds. At the molecular level, PEL and EPI induced apoptosis through the increase in pro-apoptotic BAX expression, confirmed by the decrease in its silencing miR-214-3p and the decrease in the anti-apoptotic BCL-2, MCL1, and BIRC-5 mRNA expression, attested by the increase in their silencing miRNAs, i.e., miR-193a-3p and miR-16-5p. In conclusion, our data indicate that PEL and EPI exert cytotoxicity activity against 501Mel melanoma cells promoting apoptotic signaling and inducing changes in miRNA expression and their downstream effectors. For these reasons could represent promising lead compounds in the anti-melanoma drug research.
2022
5-epi-ilimaquinone
apoptosis
Dactylospongia elegans
marine sponge
melanoma
microRNA
pelorol
Animals
Apoptosis
Aquatic Organisms
Cell Line
Tumor
Humans
Quinones
Sesquiterpenes
Melanoma
MicroRNAs
Porifera
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/87653
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