Liver fibrosis is the result of a chronic pathological condition caused by the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which induces the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. Fibrogenesis is sustained by an exag-gerated production of reactive oxidative species (ROS) by NADPH oxidases (NOXs), which are overactivated in hepatic inflammation. In this study, we investigated the antifibrotic properties of two phenolic compounds of natural origin, tyrosol (Tyr) and hydroxytyrosol (HTyr), known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We assessed Tyr and HTyr antifibrotic and antioxidant activity both in vitro, by a co-culture of LX2, HepG2 and THP1-derived M phi macrophages, set up to simulate the hepatic microenvironment, and in vivo, in a mouse model of liver fibrosis obtained by carbon tetrachloride treatment. We evaluated the mRNA and protein expression of profibrotic and oxidative markers (alpha-SMA, COL1A1, NOX1/4) by qPCR and/or immunocyto-chemistry or immunohistochemistry. The expression of selected miRNAs in mouse livers were measured by qPCR. Tyr and HTyr reduces fibrogenesis in vitro and in vivo, by downregulating all fibrotic markers. Notably, they also modulated oxidative stress by restoring the physiological levels of NOX1 and NOX4. In vivo, this effect was accompanied by a transcriptional regulation of inflammatory genes and of 2 miRNAs involved in the control of oxidative stress damage (miR-181-5p and miR-29b-3p). In conclusion, Tyr and HTyr exert antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models of liver fibrosis, by modulating hepatic oxidative stress, representing promising candidates for further development.

The phenolic compounds tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol counteract liver fibrogenesis via the transcriptional modulation of NADPH oxidases and oxidative stress-related miRNAs

Carpi, Sara;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Liver fibrosis is the result of a chronic pathological condition caused by the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which induces the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. Fibrogenesis is sustained by an exag-gerated production of reactive oxidative species (ROS) by NADPH oxidases (NOXs), which are overactivated in hepatic inflammation. In this study, we investigated the antifibrotic properties of two phenolic compounds of natural origin, tyrosol (Tyr) and hydroxytyrosol (HTyr), known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We assessed Tyr and HTyr antifibrotic and antioxidant activity both in vitro, by a co-culture of LX2, HepG2 and THP1-derived M phi macrophages, set up to simulate the hepatic microenvironment, and in vivo, in a mouse model of liver fibrosis obtained by carbon tetrachloride treatment. We evaluated the mRNA and protein expression of profibrotic and oxidative markers (alpha-SMA, COL1A1, NOX1/4) by qPCR and/or immunocyto-chemistry or immunohistochemistry. The expression of selected miRNAs in mouse livers were measured by qPCR. Tyr and HTyr reduces fibrogenesis in vitro and in vivo, by downregulating all fibrotic markers. Notably, they also modulated oxidative stress by restoring the physiological levels of NOX1 and NOX4. In vivo, this effect was accompanied by a transcriptional regulation of inflammatory genes and of 2 miRNAs involved in the control of oxidative stress damage (miR-181-5p and miR-29b-3p). In conclusion, Tyr and HTyr exert antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models of liver fibrosis, by modulating hepatic oxidative stress, representing promising candidates for further development.
2023
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)
Hydroxytyrosol
Inflammation
Liver fibrosis
MiRNA
Oxidative stress
Tyrosol
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12317/87820
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